塔基亞

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塔基亞تقیة‎)指穆斯林為著保護自家(弗包括畀嚴格禁止个單純模仿)而暫時隱瞞信仰个行爲[1],譬如假裝成非穆斯林或是另一宗派个穆斯林。

什葉派認爲信徒垃面臨威脅搭迫害个辰光咾可以隱瞞自家个信仰。[2]遜尼派嚜認爲垃特定情況下否認信仰「至多是可以容許,而在任何情況儕弗是有義務要昰然做」。[3]

伊比利亞半島个穆斯林國家垃1492年畀基督徒征服後,在16世紀,西班牙穆斯林畀強迫改信基督教或是畀驅逐出境。塔基亞使當地个穆斯林可以在表面丄假裝已改信成爲基督徒,而內心仍舊信奉伊斯蘭教。1504年,奧蘭个一位穆夫提發出來教令,容許穆斯林廣泛使用塔基亞以保存佢場个信仰。[4][5][6]雖然伊斯蘭法弗曾禁止穆斯林垃生命面臨極大危險个辰光放棄信仰,不過垃可行情況下頭必須儘快回復爲穆斯林。[7]

到1990年代,基地組織開始鼓吹渠招攬个恐怖分子在策劃襲擊西方人目標期間使用塔基亞,引起反恐專家關注。[8]21世紀興起个恐怖組織伊斯蘭國也在其刊物中指出「烈士」可以使用塔基亞掩飾自家个真正信仰,以避免畀執法當局注意。[9]另外對教外个欺瞞爲塔基亞,但對教內惡意欺瞞則屬僞信者。亦弗容許拒絕改宗伊斯蘭个齊米存心假冒穆斯林身分个行爲。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. (2005)東西方个人生智慧觀.天道書樓. 
  2. "Taqiyah". Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  3. R. Strothmann(2000).“Takkiyya”,P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs 编:Encyclopaedia of Islam,2nd,Leiden:Brill Publishers,134–135.ISBN 978-90-04-11211-7 
  4. Primary Documents on Islam and the Reconquista. Teaching Materials. The Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies at New York University. 访问日脚6 August 2012.
  5. Kamen, Henry(1998).The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision.New Haven:Yale University Press,219–220.ISBN 978-0-300-07522-9.於26 May 2011参阅. 
  6. Miller, Kathryn A.(2008).Guardians of Islam: Religious Authority and Muslim Communities of Late Medieval Spain.New York:Columbia University Press.ISBN 978-0-231-13612-9.於27 May 2011参阅.原文:“Unlike the majority of Maliki scholars before him, he openly embraced the idea of a Mudejar jihad that was bound to the notion of inner steadfastness under persecution...” 
  7. Kraemer, Joel L.(2010).Maimonides: The Life and World of One of Civilization's Greatest Minds.New York:Doubleday,100–101.ISBN 978-0-385-51200-8.於26 May 2011参阅.原文:“A responsum (fatwa) by 'Ubaydallah al-Wahrani, issued in December 1504, permitted [the Moriscos] to exercise prudent dissimulation (taqiyya) by pretending to be Christians. ... The Moriscos' behavior was exceptional, however, and a departure from a general Islamic norm – Muslims may not convert to another religion unless their lives are in mortal danger, and then they must end their new status as quickly as possible.” 
  8. France 24. 2013-03-14. http://www.france24.com/en/20130313-taqiya-france-islam-deception-favoured-terrorists-jihad. 
  9. "Joints, beer but little religion in lives of Paris attack brothers". news.yahoo.com. 2015-11-19. http://news.yahoo.com/joints-beer-little-religion-lives-paris-attack-brothers-133559865.html. "Under this strategy, set out in manuals published by the Islamic State group in Syria and Iraq, would-be "martyrs" can smoke cannabis or blaspheme to hide their religion from the authorities."