伊比利亞羅曼語

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Iberian Romance
地理分佈: Originally Iberian Peninsula and southern France; now worldwide
谱系学分类 Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Western
    Iberian Romance
分支:
Occitano-Romance (East Iberian[1])
Pyrenean–Mozarabic

伊比利亞羅曼語[2] 是指伊比利亞半島高頂,也就是當今西班牙、葡萄牙、安道爾搭法國南部地區發展出來个羅曼語个一个分支,如今好分得西伊比利亞語奧西坦羅曼語兩支。

在得伊比利亞本土,母語人口頂多个依次是加斯蒂語(西班牙语)、葡萄牙語、加太羅尼亞語搭伽里西亞語。[3] 个些語言下底又渠拉自个方言土語。依互通度,語言學家Dalby撥伊比利亞个羅曼語分爲七組:伽利西亞-葡萄牙、西班牙、Astur-Leonese、阿拉貢、加太羅尼亞、普羅旺斯-楞伽度西亞、伽斯昆。[4]

除掉以上提到个語言,還有一票基於西班牙語、葡萄牙語个克里奧爾語,比方澳門土生葡語

歷史發展[编辑]

西南歐語言地圖

搭所有羅曼語一樣,[5] 伊比利亞羅曼語也是從俗拉丁語發展而來个。伴隨羅馬帝國个擴張,俗拉丁語通過軍隊搭商販个嘴蒲在得帝國各地安家落戶。從布匿戰爭過之後羅馬人征服伊比利亞起,拉丁語搭渠个後代就已經來到个片落宕。[6]

現代伊比利亞羅曼語个形成大致經歷過下底介幾個過程:

  • 伊比利亞土著个羅馬化。[7]
  • 各地拉丁語輕微的地區分異[8]
  • 8到10世紀,拉丁語到古西班牙語、伽里西亞-葡萄牙語、阿斯都爾-萊翁語搭乃伐羅-阿拉貢語(西伊比利亞語)以及早期加泰羅尼亞語个發展。早期加泰羅尼亞語搭奧西坦語譜系歸類尚弗靈清。有个學者將其歸到伊比利亞羅曼語裡向,有个則歸到高盧羅曼語勒。[9][10][11]
  • 14到20世紀,到現代西班牙語、葡萄牙語、伽里西亞語、加泰羅尼亞語、阿斯都利亞語、萊翁語、米冷達語个進一步發展。

葡萄牙語,西班牙語搭加太羅尼亞語之間个共性[编辑]

此地列舉个是伊比利亞羅曼語之間个共同特徵,尤其是相比其他羅曼語个特點。(弗涉及個別搭別樣羅曼語个差異。)

葡萄牙語-西班牙語-加太羅尼亞語之間[编辑]

語音[编辑]

  • r/rr 个區別以音值形式保留落來,carocarro 第二個輔音音值弗同。
  • 拉丁語勒繼承个 U 保持 [u] 个發音,嘸沒變得 [y]。

西班牙語-加太羅尼亞語之間[编辑]

語音[编辑]

  • n/nn 个區別以音值形式保留落來,añomano 第二個輔音音值弗同。
  • l/ll个區別以音值形式保留落來,vallevale 第二個輔音音值弗同。个還影響上一部分加太羅尼亞語裏向L開頭个詞語。

西班牙語-葡萄牙語之間[编辑]

  • 拉丁語詞首个CL/FL/PL个音變相較意大利語更進一步,彼此分弗出來。(在得葡萄牙語裏向變得CH,西班牙語裏向變得 LL )。
  • 詞尾个e/o保留。(儘管葡萄牙語裏向弱化,到現代歐洲葡萄牙語勒詞尾e个發音已經脫落。)

語法[编辑]

  • The synthetic preterite, inherited from earlier stages of Latin, remains the main past tense.

葡萄牙語-加太羅尼亞語之間[编辑]

  • Velarized L [ɫ], which existed in Latin, is preserved at the end of syllables, and was later generalized to all positions in most dialects of both languages.
  • Stressed Latin e/o, both open and closed, is preserved so and does not become a diphthong.

地位[编辑]

Politically (not linguistically), there are four major officially recognised Iberian Romance languages:

  • Spanish (see names given to the Spanish language), is the national and official language of 21 countries, including Spain.[12] Spanish is the fourth-most widely spoken language in the world, with over 570 total million speakers, and the second-most widely spoken native language.[13] It has a number of dialects and varieties.
  • Portuguese, official language in eight countries including Portugal and Brazil. After Spanish, Portuguese is the second most widely spoken Romance language in the world with over 250 million speakers, currently ranked seventh by number of native speakers.[14] Various Portuguese dialects exist outside of the European standard spoken in Portugal.
  • Catalan is the official language in Andorra[15] and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Balearic Islands and Valencian Community (where it is known as Valencian), and the Italian city of Alghero. It is also spoken in the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales (Northern Catalonia) without official recognition. Catalan is closely related to Occitan,[16][17][18] with the two languages having been treated as one in studies by Occitanist linguists (such as Pierre Bec, or more recently Domergue Sumien). When not treated as one, the two languages are widely classified together as Occitano-Romance languages, a group which is itself sometimes grouped with the Gallo-Romance languages. Catalan has two main dialectal branches (Eastern and Western Catalan) and several subdialects, and is spoken by about 10 million people (ranking the seventy-fifth most spoken language in the world),[19] mostly in five variants: Central Catalan, Northern Catalan, Northwestern Catalan, Valencian and Balearic.
  • Galician, co-official in Galicia and also spoken in adjacent western parts of Asturias and Castile and León. Closely related to Portuguese, and to an extent Spanish.[20] It shares origins with Portuguese, from the medieval Galician-Portuguese. Modern Galician is spoken by around 3.2 million people and is ranked 160th by number of speakers.[19]

Additionally, the Asturian language, although not an official language,[21] is recognised by the autonomous community of Asturias. In Portugal, Mirandese, which, like Asturian, is one of the Astur-Leonese languages, has official status in the northernmost part of the country.[22]

譜系[编辑]

Ibero-Romance languages around the world
Ibero-Romance languages in Iberia      Portuguese      Galician      Fala      Astur-Leonese      Extremaduran      Spanish      Aragonese      Catalan      Occitan

伊比利亞羅曼語是一種傳統个分組,个個術語地理高頂個意味用得比較多。渠拉弗一定是直接共祖个單系群。常見个譜系分類如下:

(標 (†) 个是死語。)

  • 伊比利亞羅曼語語
    • 東伊比利亞語(或者歸類為高盧羅曼語)
      • 加太羅尼亞語
      • 猶太加太羅尼亞語†
      • 奧克語
    • 西伊比利亞語
      • Astur-Leonese
        • Asturian
        • Cantabrian
        • Extremaduran
        • Leonese
        • Mirandese
      • 加斯蒂利亞語
      • 伽里西亞-葡萄牙語
        • 法拉語
        • 伽里西亞語
        • 猶太葡萄牙語†
        • 葡萄牙語
      • Navarro-Aragonese†
    • Mozarabic†

See also[编辑]

  • Languages of Iberia
  • Barranquenho
  • Iberophone

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. Ibero-Romance.
  2. Pharies, David A.(2007).A Brief History of the Spanish Language.University of Chicago Press.ISBN 978-0-226-66683-9 
  3. Ethnologue: Statistical Summaries
  4. Dalby, David(2000).“5=Indo-European phylosector”,The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities..Oxford:Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. 
  5. Thomason, Sarah(2001).Language Contact.Georgetown University Press.ISBN 978-0-87840-854-2 
  6. Brown, Keith(2008).Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World.Elsevier Science.ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7 
  7. Penny, Ralph(2002).A History of the Spanish Language.Cambridge University Press.ISBN 978-0-521-01184-6 
  8. Template:Harvp
  9. Turell, M. Teresa(2001).Multilingualism in Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups.Multilingual Matters.ISBN 978-1-85359-491-5 
  10. Cabo Aseguinolaza, Fernando(2010).A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula.John Benjamins Publishing Company.ISBN 978-90-272-3457-5 
  11. Lapesa, Rafael(1968).Historia de la lengua española (7th ed.).Gredos.ISBN 84-249-0072-3 
  12. Lengua Española o Castellana (es).
  13. Ethnologue: Table 3. Languages with at least 3 million first-language speakers
  14. See Ethnologue
  15. Constitution of Andorra (Article 2.1)
  16. Bec, Pierre (1973), Manuel pratique d'occitan moderne, coll. Connaissance des langues, Paris: Picard
  17. Sumien, Domergue (2006), La standardisation pluricentrique de l'occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie, coll. Publications de l'Association Internationale d'Études Occitanes, Turnhout: Brepols
  18. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Ethnologue
  20. The Romance Languages. 
  21. "La jueza a Fernando González: 'No puede usted hablar en la lengua que le dé la gana'". El Comercio. 12 January 2009. http://www.elcomerciodigital.com/gijon/20090112/local/asturias/miembro-andecha-astur-enfrenta-200901121726.html. 
  22. See: Euromosaic report

外部鏈接[编辑]