馬紹爾語

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馬紹爾語(馬紹爾語:Kajin M̧ajeļ‎或Kajin Majõl )是馬紹爾群島个官方語言,渠屬於南島語系

语音[编辑]

辅音[编辑]

马绍尔语有22隻辅音(其中5隻是以两隻字母表示),附加一隻软腭中央近音(在乃朝个书写系统常莊省略脫):

Primary 双唇音 齿音 腭音 软腭音
Secondary pal. vel. pal. vel. lab. plain lab.
鼻音 m /mʲ/ /mˠ/ n /n̪ʲ/ ņ /n̪ˠ/ ņw /n̪ˠʷ/   /ŋ/ n̄w /ŋʷ/
爆破音 p /pʲ/ b /bˠ/ j /t̪ʲ/ t /t̪ˠ/     k /k/ kw /kʷ/
翘舌音   r /r̪ʲ/ d /r̪ˠ/ dw /r̪ˠʷ/    
近音   l /l̪ʲ/ ļ /l̪ˠ/ ļw /l̪ˠʷ/ y /j/ h or ʔ /ɰ/ w /w/

元音[编辑]

马绍尔语有4隻元音音位,每隻有好几种变体。

马绍尔语元音 Simple realisations Main orthographies
height phoneme unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
front back front back
High (close) /ɨ/ [i] [ɯ] [u] i u
Upper Mid (near-close) /ɘ/ [ɪ] [ɤ]

(long)

[ʊ] i (or ę) o ū (or ü)
Lower Mid (open-mid) /ɜ/ [e] [ʌ]

(short)

[ɯ] e (or ) ō (or ü)
Low (open) /ɐ/ [ɛ] [ɑ] [ɔ] a ā (or ä)

正寫法[编辑]

近瑲把马绍尔语个正寫法经历爻一场改革。然而,多数人还是愿意使用过去个书写方式。渠使用拉丁字母,当中含有特殊记音符号。由于宗教派别弗同,马绍尔字母有几种弗同体系。天主教学校所教个拼写一般相同。公立学堂使用个拼写系统嚜在每個岛丄全有区别。下頭是乃歇常用个字母表。

基本字母 读音   带变音符号的字母 读音   带长音符号的字母 读音
a A /ɐ/ [ɛ]
/ɐ/ [ɑ]
  ā (or ä) Ā (or Ä) /ɐ/ [ɔ]
b B /bˠ/    
d D /r̪ˠ/    
e E /ɜ/ [e]    
i I /ɨ/ [i]
/ɘ/ [ɪ]
   
j (or y) J (or Y) /j/ [ʒ]
/j/ [j]
   
k K /k/    
l L /l̪ʲ/ ļ (or ł) Ļ (or Ł) /l̪ˠ/  
m M /mʲ/ (or ) (or ) /mˠ/  
n N /n̪ʲ/ ņ (or ) Ņ (or ) /n̪ˠ/ (or ñ or ŋ) (or Ñ or Ŋ) /ŋ/
o O /ɘ/ [ɤ] (long) o̧ (or ) O̧ (or ) /ɜ/ [ʌ] (short) ō (or ö) Ō (or Ö) /ɜ/ [o]
p P /pʲ/    
r R /r̪ʲ/    
t T /t̪ˠ/    
u U /ɨ/ [ɯ]
/ɨ/ [u]
  ū (or ü) Ū (or Ü) /ɘ/ [ʊ]
w W /w/
/ʷ/
   

参攷資料[编辑]

  • Bender, Byron W. (1968). Marshallese phonology. Oceanic Linguistics, 7, 16-35.
  • Bender, Byron W. (1969). Spoken Marshallese: an intensive language course with grammatical notes and glossary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0870220705
  • Bender, Byron W. (1969). Vowel dissimilation in Marshallese. In Working papers in linguistics (No. 11, pp. 88-96). University of Hawaii.
  • Bender, Byron W. (1973). Parallelisms in the morphophonemics of several Micronesian languages. Oceanic Linguistics, 12, 455-477.
  • Choi, John D. (1992). Phonetic underspecification and target interpolation: An acoustic study of Marshallese vowel allophony. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics (No. 82). [1]
  • Hale, Mark. (2007) Chapter 5 of Historical Linguistics: Theory and Method. Blackwell
  • Hale, Mark. (2000). Marshallese phonology, the phonetics-phonology interface and historical linguistics. The Linguistic Review, 17, 241-257.