跨性别

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跨性别旗子
美国人Holly Boswell设计个跨性别象征符号(⚧),结合了雄性搭雌性个星相符号。

跨性别(英语:Transgender)人士个性别认同或性别表现搭渠拉个出生辰光指定性别弗同。[1][2][3]如果跨性别人士以医学手段从一种性别转换到另一种性别,则会被称为变性人。“跨性别”是一个伞式术语:除了包括性别认同搭出生辰光个指定性别相反个人(跨性别男性跨性别女性),伊还可能包括弗完全归属于传统上个男性表现或女性表现个人(性别酷儿/X性别人士,包括双性别、泛性别、流体性别、无性别)。

个人对于外表个感觉良好搭舒适而且接受伊自家性别认同个情况则叫做“跨性别一致”(transgender congruence)。[4]蛮多跨性别者经历性别不安,有眼人寻求治疗,像是激素替代疗法、性别重置手术以及心理治疗(但需注意个是,心理治疗𪥸改变跨性别人士个性别认同)。[5]弗是所有跨性别者侪渴望接受搿种治疗,也有眼因为经济或医学方面个原因而呒没办法接受。[6][7]

术语个定义[编辑]

哥伦比亚大学医学院个精神科医师约翰·F·奥利文(John F. Oliven)嘞嘞伊1965年出版个参考书《性卫生与病理学》(Sexual Hygiene and Pathology)里向首次提出了“transgender”搿个用词,并且指出以前用个术语“transsexualism”是具有误导性个,因为本身弗是跨性别个一个重大影响因子。[8][9][10]跨性别男性迭个术语指个是从女性性别转到男性个男性,跨性别女性是指从男性性别转到女性个女性。跨性别者们一般希望伊拉个认同性别畀其他人尊重。卫生专业人员手册、专业新闻风格指南帮LGBT拥护组织建议其他人采用跨性别者自我认同个姓名帮人称代词,提及跨性别人士个过去态也是一样个,[11][12]当中许多亦建议英文中个“Transgender”弗应该当作名词,应该当作形容词使用;也指出“Transgender”弗应该嘞结尾加上“-ed”,变成“transgendered”。[13][14][15]

出柜[编辑]

跨性别人士嘞嗨选择啥辰光,阿好、哪能向家人,亲密朋友搭其他人透露伊拉个跨性别身份方面各有自家个方法帮时机。[16]

互联网可以勒跨性别人士即将出柜个过程中发挥重要作用。一眼人首先以网络身份出柜,搿个为了勒现实世界高头冒着社会公审个风险之前提供了虚拟搭安全出柜经验的机会。[17]

帮LGBT搭界[编辑]

一个人自家个性别认同帮性取向是弗同个,[18]性取向讲个是人对特定性别个人产生情感,乃末畀吸引个现象,而性别认同讲个是伊认同自家是啥性别。[13]

跨性别群体嘞LGBT权利史上做个事体经常畀忽视。[19]

医疗[编辑]

现在辰光,阿拉认为跨性别弗是一种疾病(但除脱伊朗以外个大多数伊斯兰国家弗承认跨性别者个身份,仍然拿过时个“性别认同障碍”来诊断伊拉),也弗是一种个人选择(无论顺性别者还是跨性别者通常侪呒没办法选择自家个认同),也弗是可以凭借当事人意志坚持或放弃的个癖好或者兴趣

大多数精神卫生专业人员建议,如果侬个性别认同帮养出来个辰光指定个性别角色弗同并且产生痛苦,搿就是要治疗个,特别是嘞当事人想从一种性别过渡到另一种性别个情况。因为性别认同帮其他人期望不同咾,或是因为性别认同帮生理性征冲突而产生痛苦个人,侪好通过深入地讲出伊拉个感受得到获益;然而对性别认同个心理学研究以及对搿现象个科学认识还刚刚嘞嗨起步㖠。[20]

各个地方个民间反应[编辑]

日本[编辑]

2017年,有一百多年历史个日本私立女学堂日本女子大学还是收录男跨女学生。[21]

香港[编辑]

2016年10月,沙田区威尔斯亲王医院跨专科诊所启用哉。[22]

美国[编辑]

2016年底媒体传出,《国家地理杂志》拿一名9岁个跨性别儿童作为2017年1月份个封面,引起老多回响。[23]

2017年1月底,美国男童军总会宣布嘞当天起,弗会得再用出生纸作为性别证明,将以申请表上列明个性别,作为判别男童军申请资格个依据,讲清爽就是变相允许认为自家是男性个跨性别儿童加入。[24]

参考[编辑]

  1. (2011)Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social WorkOxford University PressISBN 978-0199838271.於April 12, 2016参阅.原文:“Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation [GLAAD], 2007).” 
  2. (2014)Encyclopedia of Social DevianceSage PublicationsISBN 978-1483364698.於April 12, 2016参阅.原文:“Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and/or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth.” 
  3. Berg-Weger, Marla(2016).Social Work and Social Welfare: An InvitationRoutledgeISBN 978-1317592020.於April 12, 2016参阅.原文:“Transgender: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth.” 
  4. Kozee, H. B.; Tylka, T. L.; Bauerband, L. A. Measuring transgender individuals' comfort with gender identity and appearance: Development and validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 2012, 36 (2): 179–196. 
  5. Victoria Maizes, Integrative Women's Health (2015, Template:ISBN), page 745: "Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria—distress that results from the discordance of biological sex and experienced gender (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Treatment for gender dysphoria, considered to be highly effective, includes physical, medical, and/or surgical treatments [...] some [transgender people] may not choose to transition at all."
  6. Victoria Maizes, Integrative Women's Health (2015, Template:ISBN), page 745: "Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria—distress that results from the discordance of biological sex and experienced gender (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Treatment for gender dysphoria, considered to be highly effective, includes physical, medical, and/or surgical treatments [...] some [transgender people] may not choose to transition at all."
  7. Understanding Transgender People FAQ (1 May 2009). 原始文档勒22 April 2016存档. 访问日脚20 April 2016.
  8. Oliven, John F. Sexual Hygiene and Pathology. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1965, 250 (2): 235. doi:10.1097/00000441-196508000-00054. 
  9. Oliven, John F.(1965).Sexual Hygiene and Pathology.原文:“Where the compulsive urge reaches beyond female vestments, and becomes an urge for gender ("sex") change, transvestism becomes "transsexualism." The term is misleading; actually, "transgenderism" is what is meant, because sexuality is not a major factor in primary transvestism. Psychologically, the transsexual often differs from the simple cross-dresser; he is conscious at all times of a strong desire to be a woman, and the urge can be truly consuming.” 
  10. Rawson, K. J.; Williams, Cristan. Transgender: The Rhetorical Landscape of a term. Present Tense: A Journal of Rhetoric in Society. 2014, 3 (2) [2017-05-18]. (原始内容存档于2017-05-15). 
  11. Glicksman, Eve (April 2013). Transgender terminology: It's complicated. American Psychological Association. 原始文档勒2013-09-25存档. 访问日脚2013-09-17. “Use whatever name and gender pronoun the person prefers”
  12. Sponsored by the American Medical Association and The Fenway Health with unrestricted support from Fenway Health and Pfizer. Meeting the Health Care Needs of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People: The End to LGBT Invisibility (PowerPoint Presentation). The Fenway Institute. 访问日脚2013-09-17. “Use the pronoun that matches the person's gender identity”
  13. 13.0 13.1 Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. "GLAAD's Transgender Resource Page" , "GLAAD", USA. Retrieved 2011-02-24. "Problematic: "transgendered". Preferred: transgender. The adjective transgender should never have an extraneous "-ed" tacked onto the end. An "-ed" suffix adds unnecessary length to the word and can cause tense confusion and grammatical errors. It also brings transgender into alignment with lesbian, gay, and bisexual. You would not say that Elton John is "gayed" or Ellen DeGeneres is "lesbianed," therefore you would not say Chaz Bono is "transgendered."
  14. Dan Savage, Savage Love: Gayed, Blacked, Transgendered (Creative Loafing, 11 January 2014)
  15. Guardian and Observer style guide : use transgender [...] only as an adjective: transgender person, trans person; never "transgendered person" or "a transgender"
  16. Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation. Archived copy. 原始文档勒2011-08-03存档. 访问日脚2011-02-24., "GLAAD", USA, February 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  17. Marciano, A. Living the VirtuReal: Negotiating transgender identity in cyberspace. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. 2014, 19 (4): 824–838. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12081. 
  18. name="apatransgenderanswers">Answers to Your Questions About Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity report from the website of the American Psychological Association - "What is the relationship between transgender and sexual orientation?"
  19. Transforming History. Retro Report. 原始文档勒2015-07-10存档. 访问日脚2015-07-15.
  20. Brown, M.L. & Rounsley, C.A. (1996) True Selves: Understanding Transsexualism – For Families, Friends, Coworkers, and Helping Professionals Jossey-Bass: San Francisco Template:ISBN
  21. "日百年歷史女子大學 擬破例收跨性別學生" (in zh-hk). on.cc東網. Retrieved 2018-05-13. 
  22. 朱韻斐 (2016-09-12). "性別認同障礙患者一站式跟進 威院跨專科診所10月啟用" (in zh-HK). 香港01. Retrieved 2018-05-13. 
  23. "美國跨性別兒童 登《國家地理雜誌》封面" (in zh-hk). on.cc東網. Retrieved 2018-05-13. 
  24. "美國男童軍破百年慣例 准跨性別男童加入" (in zh-hk). on.cc東網. Retrieved 2018-05-13.