諾曼語

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Norman
Normaund
母语戶蕩

Previously used:

使用戶蕩 Normandy and the Channel Islands
幾許人講 Unknown due to conflicting definitions(2017)
語系
文字 Latin (French orthography)
言話代碼
ISO 639-3 nrf
Langue normande.png

諾曼語 (Normaund, 法語: Normand, Guernésiais: Normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) 是羅曼語族裏向搭法語、淮隆語彼加特語同一支个奧伊語个一種。還有「諾曼-法語」介个講法,必過喊法意思弗光包括諾曼語,還包含盎格魯諾曼語搭英國用个低地法語。一般來講,書面高頂諾曼文搭現代法文是好互通个,个廿大程度上是因爲諾曼語制定个正字法對法語正字法个迎合。

地理分佈[编辑]

諾曼語主要分佈于法國个諾曼底地區,嘸沒官方語言个地位。瑟堡-奧克忒維勒个有兩所大學會用諾曼語教學。

在得海峽羣島,也有分散分佈 ,獨自有所發展:

  • 杰西話 (在得杰西島
  • 根西話或者喊得根西法語(在得根西島
  • 薩克話 (在得薩克島
  • 奧特尼話 (in Alderney)


歷史[编辑]

古代北歐个諾爾斯侵略者來到當時紐斯德利亞地區,也便是後來个諾曼底安頓落來,話日耳曼語个伽慢慢撥話高盧羅曼語个當地人同化,改話羅曼語。兩廂融合發展,最終形成諾曼語。(到後來征服英格蘭个諾曼底同樣像介个撥話英語个當地人同化掉。)

在得諾曼底,現代个諾曼語還繼承上一些古諾爾斯語个詞彙。 而語音个影響則比較有爭議,有人認爲諾曼語/h/搭/k/个保留(法語裏向h弗發音,古拉丁語个/k/法語有交關个顎化)是諾爾斯語个影響。

諾爾斯源个諾曼語詞語舉例:

英語 諾曼語 古諾爾斯語 斯堪地那維亞諸語裏向个參照 法語
bait baite, bète, abète beita beita (Icelandic), beite (Norw.), bete (Swed.) appât
down dun, dum, dumet, deumet dúnn dúnn (Icelandic), dun (Swed., Norw., Dan.) duvet (from Norman)
earthnut, groundnut, pignut, peanut génotte, gernotte, jarnotte *jarðhnot jarðhneta (Ice.), jordnøtt (Norw.), jordnöt (Swed.), jordnød (Dan.) terre-noix
(black) currant gade, gadelle, gradelle, gradille gaddʀ (-) cassis, groseille
slide, slip griller, égriller, écriller *skriðla skrilla (Old Swed.), skriða (Icelandic), skride (Dan.) overskride (Norw.) glisser
islet hommet/houmet hólmʀ hólmur (Icelandic), holme (Swed.), holm (Norw., Dan.) îlot, rocher en mer
mound (cf. howe, high) hougue haugʀ haugur (Ice.), haug (Norw.), hög (Swe.), høj (Dan.) monticule
seagull mauve, mave, maôve mávaʀ (pl.) mávar (pl.) (Icelandic), måge (Dan.), måke/måse (Norw.), mås (Swed.) mouette, goëland
dune, sandy land mielle, mièle melʀ mjele (Norw.), mjälla (Swed.), mile (Dan.) dune, terrain sableux
beach grass, dune grass milgreu, melgreu *melgrös, pl. of *melgras melgras (Icelandic) oyat
damp (cf. muggy), humid mucre mykr (cf. English muck) myk (Norw.) humide
ness (headland or cliff, cf. Sheerness, etc.) nez nes nes (Norw., Icelandic), næs (Dan.), näs (Swed.) cap, pointe de côte
wicket (borrowed from Norman) viquet, (-vic, -vy, -vouy in place-names) vík vík (Icelandic), vik (Norw., Swed.), vig (Dan.) guichet (borrowed from Norman)

一部分諾曼語裏向个諾爾斯詞語撥法語借得去,後手來貤進入英語个法語借詞裏向一部分也好追溯到諾曼語。

用諾曼語个門店个招牌

1066年諾曼底征服英格蘭以降,英格蘭个新統治者話个諾曼語个影響要一部分詞在得諾曼語裏向搭法語裏向發展得交關弗同:

英語 諾曼語 法語
fashion < faichon = façon
cabbage < caboche = chou (cf. caboche)
castle < castel (borrowed from Occitan) = château, castelet
cauldron < caudron = chaudron
causeway < caucie (now cauchie)[1] = chaussée
catch < cachier (now cachi)[2] = chasser
cater < acater = acheter
cherry (ies) < cherise (chrise, chise ) = cerise
mug < mogue/moque[3] = mug, boc
poor < paur = pauvre
wait < waitier (Old Norman) = gaitier (mod. guetter )
war < werre (Old Norman) = guerre
warrior < werreur (Old Norman) = guerrier
wicket < viquet = guichet (cf. piquet)

另外英語个一些諾曼借詞, 像captain, kennel, cattlecanvas,都好說明諾曼語保留仔拉丁語詞源个/k/,而法語裏向已經變化掉。

參考資料[编辑]

  1. Oxford English Dictionary. "Causeway"
  2. Oxford English Dictionary. "Catch"
  3. The Oxford English Dictionary. entry on "Mug¹" states that the origin of this word is uncertain—it may have been a borrowing from Norman, or it may have come from another source, and been reinforced through Norman.

數據來源[编辑]

  • Essai de grammaire de la langue normande, UPN, 1995.  ISBN 2-9509074-0-7.
  • V'n-ous d'aveu mei? UPN, 1984.
  • La Normandie dialectale, 1999,  ISBN 2-84133-076-1
  • Alain Marie, Les auteurs patoisants du Calvados, 2005.  ISBN 2-84706-178-9.
  • Roger Jean Lebarbenchon, Les Falaises de la Hague, 1991.  ISBN 2-9505884-0-9.
  • Jean-Louis Vaneille, Les patoisants bas-normands, n.d., Saint-Lô.
  • André Dupont, Dictionnaire des patoisants du Cotentin, Société d'archéologie de la Manche, Saint-Lô, 1992.
  • Geraint Jennings and Yan Marquis, "The Toad and the Donkey: an anthology of Norman literature from the Channel Islands", 2011,  ISBN 978-1-903427-61-3

外部鏈接[编辑]