羣體

来自维基百科
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擁有共同利益者一同聚集在英國巨石陣。

群體英语Community)也畀稱爲社區社群共同體,是指因爲共享共同價值觀而聚集在一淘个社會單位。雖然絕大部分群體是由同類物種面對面後纔能夠組成較小个團體,但是也有針對民族國際社會虛擬社群等較大或者由多隻共同組成之群體進行之研究。其中群體傳統定義是一群彼此有互動且居住在共同區域个人,而今常用來指具有共同價值觀或者因有共同地域關係而產生團體凝聚力个一群人。

「群體」一詞英語「Community」源自於古法語中指稱夥伴關係或者有組織社會个「Comunete」,而後者更是從拉丁語中專指共同持有東西个詞彙「Communitas」延伸而來[1]。在社會學中對於群體个內涵曾有老大个爭議,社會學家也尚未對群體个定義達成共識,其中在1950年中期關於群體就有49種弗同个定義[2]。部分群體可以提出或者行使政治社會權利,其中又有些群體是建立在民主基礎丄个,但並非全數群體儕是施行民主制度。其中一個能寬泛包括所有弗同形式群體个定義爲:

一群客觀上相互聯繫个團體或網絡能夠彼此產生相對持久个社會關係,除脫超越眼前个家庭關係之外,且彼此能夠定義出關聯作爲佢拉社會身份搭社會實踐个重要事項。[3][4]

一般而言群體會是比還要大个社會單位,而當一群人爲了達到目標或者解決問題、共同工作个計畫也能夠促使人們組成群體。群體昰個詞也可以指一個民族或者全球性个社群,另外也有像合作社般是建立在經濟基礎上个群體。群體彼此可能同時面對或者共有目的信念資源偏好、需求、風險等條件,而昰個也將影響參與者个身份搭凝聚力个強弱。在網際網路出現後群體个定義便比較弗受到地域性个限制,因爲即便在弗同地區、人們仍然可以在同一個虛擬社群內交換訊息或者是分享共同个興趣。而在過去要組織像社會、學術團體等非實體社群个辰光,往往會受到通訊搭交通技術个限制而較難發展。

參見[编辑]

參攷資料[编辑]

  1. "community" Oxford Dictionaries. May 2014. Oxford Dictionaries
  2. Hillery, George A., Jr., "Definitions of Community: Areas of Agreement," Rural Sociology, 20 (4), 1955, p. 111.
  3. (2012)pdf download Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea.Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press. 
  4. James, Paul(2006).Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In —Volume 2 of Towards a Theory of Abstract Community.London:Sage Publications. 

參攷文獻[编辑]

  • Barzilai, Gad. 2003. Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Beck, U. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage
— 2000. What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Canuto, Marcello A. and Jason Yaeger, eds. (2000) The Archaeology of Communities. Routledge, New York.
  • Chavis, D.M., Hogge, J.H., McMillan, D.W., & Wandersman, A. 1986. "Sense of community through Brunswick's lens: A first look." Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 24-40.
  • Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658.
  • Christensen, K., et al. (2003). Encyclopedia of Community. 4 volumes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Cohen, A. P. 1985. The Symbolic Construction of Community. Routledge: New York.
  • Durkheim, Émile. 1950 [1895] The Rules of Sociological Method. Translated by S. A. Solovay and J. H. Mueller. New York: The Free Press.
  • Cox, F., J. Erlich, J. Rothman, and J. Tropman. 1970. Strategies of Community Organization: A Book of Readings. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock Publishers.
  • Effland, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations Mesa Community College.
  • Giddens, A. 1999. "Risk and Responsibility" Modern Law Review 62(1): 1-10.
  • James, Paul(1996).Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community.London:Sage Publications. 
  • James, Paul(2006).Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In —Volume 2 of Towards a Theory of Abstract Community.London:Sage Publications. 
  • James, Paul(2012).pdf download Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea.Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. (2003). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296.
  • McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory." American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc. La Communauté désœuvrée - philosophical questioning of the concept of community and the possibility of encountering a non-subjective concept of it
  • 空引用‎ (帮助) 
  • Newman, D. 2005. Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life, Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" Pine Forge Press. Retrieved: 2006-08-05.
  • Peck, M.S. 1987. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84858-7
  • Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115.
  • Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster
  • Sarason, S.B. 1974. The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
— 1986. "Commentary: The emergence of a conceptual center." Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 405-407.
  • Smith, M. K. 2001. Community. Encyclopedia of informal education. Last updated: January 28, 2005. Retrieved: 2006-07-15.
  • Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag, 2nd ed. 1912, 8th edition, Leipzig: Buske, 1935; translated in 1957 as Community and Society. ISBN 978-0-88738-750-0