约翰内斯·开普勒

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约翰内斯·开普勒(德語Johannes Kepler [ˈkʰɛplɐ],1571年12月27日-1630年11月15日),德国天文學家數學家。开普勒是十七世紀科學革命个關鍵人物。佢頂頂著名个成就是开普勒定律,昰個是稍後天文學家根據佢个著作《新天文学》、《世界个和諧》、《哥白尼天文学概要》萃取而成个三條定律。昰些傑作對艾薩克·牛頓影響極大,啟發牛頓後來想出牛頓萬有引力定律

在佢个职业生涯當中,开普勒曾在奥地利格拉茨个一家神学院担任数学教师,成为汉斯·乌尔里奇·艾根伯格亲王(Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg)个同事。後首來,佢成了天文学家第谷·布拉赫个助手,并最终成为皇帝鲁道夫二世(Rudolf II)及其两任继任者马蒂亚斯(Matthias)搭费迪南二世的皇家数学家。佢还曾经在奥地利林茨担任过数学教师及华伦斯坦(Wallenstein)将军个顾问。此外,佢在光学领域做了基础性个工作,发明了一种改进型个折光式望远镜(开普勒望远镜),并提及了同时期个伽利略利用望远镜得到个发现。

开普勒生活个年代,天文学与占星学還朆有得清爽个区分,但是天文学(文科中数学个分支)与物理学(自然哲学个分支)却有仔明显个区分。由於宗教上信奉上帝根据借助自然理性之光就可理解个计划创造了世界,受此驱动,开普勒还擔宗教界个争论记录到佢个作品裏向[1]。开普勒擔佢个新天文学描述为“天体物理学[2]”、“到亚里士多德个《形而上学》个旅行[3]”、“亚里士多德宇宙论个补充[4]”、通过擔天文学作为通用数学物理学个一部分改变古代传统个物理宇宙学[5]

天文學著作[编辑]

  • 宇宙个奧秘》(Mysterium cosmographicum,1596)
  • 《关于占星术更坚实个基础》(De Fundamentis Astrologiae CertioribusOn Firmer Fundaments of Astrology; 1601年)
  • 《天文學个光学部分》(Astronomiae Pars Optica,1604)
  • 《蛇夫座腳部个新星》(De Stella Nova in Pede Serpentarii,1606)
  • 《新天文学》(Astronomia nova,1609)
  • 《第三方调解》(Tertius Interveniens,1610年)
  • 《与星夜信使个对话》(Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo,1610年)
  • 《折射光学》(Dioptrice,1611)
开普勒环形山
  • 《六角个雪花》(De nive sexangula,1611年)
  • 《昰些年里,圣母玛利亚与永恒个耶稣基督展现了人类出生前个本性》(De vero Anno, quo aeternus Dei Filius humanam naturam in Utero benedictae Virginis Mariae assumpsit,1614)[6]
  • 《编年纪选集》(Eclogae Chronicae,1615年,搭《与星夜信使个对话》一起发表)
  • 《求酒桶体积之新法》(Nova stereometria doliorum vinariorum,1615年)
  • 《哥白尼天文学概要》(Epitome astronomiae Copernicanae,从1618-1621年分三部分发表)
  • 世界个和諧》(Harmonices Mundi,1618)
  • 《宇宙个神圣秘密》(第二版,Mysterium cosmographicum,1621年)
  • 《鲁道夫星表》(Tabulae Rudolphinae,1627)
  • 《梦》(Somnium,1634年)

參見[编辑]

引用和注释[编辑]

  1. Barker and Goldstein. "Theological Foundations of Kepler's Astronomy", pp.  112–13.
  2. Kepler. New Astronomy, title page, tr. Donohue, pp.  26–7
  3. Kepler. New Astronomy, p. 48
  4. Epitome of Copernican Astronomy in Great Books of the Western World, Vol 15, p. 845
  5. Stephenson. Kepler's Physical Astronomy, pp.  1–2; Dear, Revolutionizing the Sciences, pp.  74–78
  6. "...in 1614, Johannes Kepler published his book "De vero anno quo aeternus dei filius humanum naturam in utero benedictae Virginis Mariae assumpsit", on the chronology related to the Star of Bethlehem.", The Star of Bethlehem, Kapteyn Astronomical InstituteKapteyn Astronomical Institute英语-{Kapteyn Astronomical Institute}-

参考资料[编辑]

  • Andersen, Hanne; Peter Barker; and Xiang Chen. The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions, chapter 6: "The Copernican Revolution." New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-521-85575-4
  • Armitage, Angus. John Kepler, Faber, 1966.
  • Banville, John. Kepler, Martin, Secker and Warburg, London, 1981 (fictionalised biography)
  • Barker, Peter and Bernard R. Goldstein: "Theological Foundations of Kepler's Astronomy". Osiris, Volume 16. Science in Theistic Contexts. University of Chicago Press, 2001, pp.  88–113
  • Caspar, Max. Kepler; transl. and ed. by C. Doris Hellman; with a new introduction and references by Owen Gingerich; bibliographic citations by Owen Gingerich and Alain Segonds. New York: Dover, 1993. ISBN 978-0-486-67605-0
  • Connor, James A. Kepler's Witch: An Astronomer's Discovery of Cosmic Order Amid Religious War, Political Intrigue, and the Heresy Trial of His Mother. HarperSanFrancisco, 2004. ISBN 978-0-06-052255-1
  • De Gandt, Francois. Force and Geometry in Newton's Principia, Translated by Curtis Wilson, Princeton University Press 1995. ISBN 978-0-691-03367-9
  • Dreyer, J. L. E. A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler. Dover Publications Inc, 1967. ISBN 978-0-486-60079-6
  • Ferguson, Kitty. The nobleman and his housedog: Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler: the strange partnership that revolutionized science. London: Review, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7472-7022-5 – published in the US as: Tycho & Kepler: the unlikely partnership that forever changed our understanding of the heavens. New York: Walker, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8027-1390-2
  • Field, J. V.. Kepler's geometrical cosmology. Chicago University Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-226-24823-3
  • Gilder, Joshua and Anne-Lee Gilder: Heavenly Intrigue: Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, and the Murder Behind One of History's Greatest Scientific Discoveries, Doubleday(May 18, 2004). ISBN 978-0-385-50844-5 Reviews bookpage.com[失效鏈接], crisismagazine.com[失效鏈接]
  • Gingerich, OwenGingerich, Owen英语-{Owen Gingerich}-. The Eye of Heaven: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler. American Institute of Physics, 1993. ISBN 978-0-88318-863-7(Masters of modern physics; v. 7)
  • Gingerich, Owen: "Kepler, Johannes" in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Volume VII. Charles Coulston Gillispie, editor. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973
  • Greenbaum and Boockmann: "Kepler's Astrology", Culture and Cosmos Vol. 14. Special Double Issue, 2012.
  • Jardine, Nick: "Koyré’s Kepler/Kepler's Koyré," History of Science, Vol. 38 (2000), pp.  363–376
  • Kepler, Johannes. Johannes Kepler New Astronomy trans. W. Donahue, forward by O. Gingerich, Cambridge University Press 1993. ISBN 978-0-521-30131-2
  • Kepler, Johannes and Christian Frisch. Joannis Kepleri Astronomi Opera OmniaJohn Kepler, Astronomer; Complete Works), 8 vols.(1858–1871). vol. 1, 1858, vol. 2, 1859, vol. 3, 1860, vol. 6, 1866, vol. 7, 1868, Frankfurt am Main and Erlangen, Heyder & Zimmer, – Google Books
  • Kepler, Johannes, et al. Great Books of the Western World. Volume 16: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1952.(contains English translations by of Kepler's Epitome, Books IV & V and Harmonices Book 5)
  • Koestler, Arthur. The SleepwalkersThe Sleepwalkers英语-{The Sleepwalkers}-: A History of Man's Changing Vision of the Universe.(1959). ISBN 978-0-14-019246-9
  • Koyré, Alexandre: Galilean Studies Harvester Press 1977. ISBN 978-0-85527-354-5
  • Koyré, Alexandre: The Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus-Kepler-Borelli Ithaca, NY: Cornell University PressCornell University Press英语-{Cornell University Press}-, 1973. ISBN 978-0-8014-0504-4; Methuen, 1973. ISBN 978-0-416-76980-7; Hermann, 1973. ISBN 978-2-7056-5648-5
  • Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957. ISBN 978-0-674-17103-9
  • Lindberg, David C.: "The Genesis of Kepler's Theory of Light: Light Metaphysics from Plotinus to Kepler." Osiris, N.S. 2. University of Chicago Press, 1986, pp.  5–42.
  • Lear, John. Kepler's Dream. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965
  • M.T.K Al-Tamimi: Great collapse Kepler's first law, Natural Science 2 (2010), ISBN 2150 – 4091
  • North, John. The Fontana History of Astronomy and Cosmology, Fontana Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-00-686177-5
  • Pannekoek, Anton: A History of Astronomy, Dover Publications Inc 1989. ISBN 978-0-486-65994-7
  • Pauli, Wolfgang. Wolfgang Pauli —Writings on physics and philosophy, translated by Robert Schlapp and edited by P. Enz and Karl von Meyenn(Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1994). See section 21, The influence of archetypical ideas on the scientific theories of Kepler, concerning Johannes Kepler and Robert FluddRobert Fludd英语-{Robert Fludd}-(1574–1637). ISBN 978-3-540-56859-9
  • Schneer, Cecil: "Kepler's New Year's Gift of a Snowflake." IsisIsis英语-{Isis (journal)}-, Volume 51, No. 4. University of Chicago Press, 1960, pp.  531–545.
  • Shapin, Steven. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-226-75020-0
  • Stephenson, Bruce. Kepler's physical astronomy. New York: Springer, 1987. ISBN 978-0-387-96541-3(Studies in the history of mathematics and physical sciences; 13); reprinted Princeton:Princeton Univ. Pr., 1994. ISBN 978-0-691-03652-6
  • Stephenson, Bruce. The Music of the Heavens: Kepler's Harmonic Astronomy, Princeton University Press, 1994. ISBN 978-0-691-03439-3
  • Toulmin, Stephen and June Goodfield. The Fabric of the Heavens: The Development of Astronomy and Dynamics. Pelican, 1963.
  • Voelkel, James R. The Composition of Kepler's Astronomia nova, Princeton University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-691-00738-0
  • Westfall, Richard S.Westfall, Richard S.英语-{Richard S. Westfall}-. The Construction of Modern Science: Mechanism and Mechanics. John Wiley and Sons, 1971. ISBN 978-0-471-93531-5; reprinted Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 978-0-521-29295-5
  • Westfall, Richard S. Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-521-23143-5
  • Wolf, A. A History of Science, Technology and Philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries. George Allen & Unwin, 1950.

外部链接[编辑]