神話

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女娲与伏羲

垃民俗学丄,神话是指关于人类世界变迁个神圣故事。[1]垃广义丄,“神话”可以指任何古老传说,[2] 藉由故事个形式來表達民族个意识形态。[3] 神话来源於原始社会时期,人类通过推理搭想象对自然现象作出解释。但是由於昰些个知識水準邪氣低下,葛咾经常笼罩着一层神秘个色彩。

神话是人们借助於幻想企图征服自然个表现。神话中神个形象大多具有超人个力量,是原始人类个认识搭愿望个理想化。

许多民族个原始社会个历史,儕是从神话故事开头个。神话中个人物大多来自原始人类个自身形象。狩猎比较发达个部落,所创造个神话人物大多与狩猎有关;农耕发达个部落所创造个神话人物多与农业有关。神话中个英雄也以刀斧、弓箭为武器。从神话中,可以看到先民个一些事迹。

無论是世界文明发生最早地区个原始社会民族,还是当今世界上还处在原始社会个民族,佢拉流传个许多神话故事都大同小异。

神话也是文学个先河,是人类最早个幻想性口头散文作品。譬如垃《庄子·應帝王》裏向:“泰氏,其卧徐徐,具觉于于,一以己为马,一以己为牛。”

神话具有一定个地域性搭区域性,弗同个文明或者民族儕有得自家所理解个神话含义[4]

世界神話[编辑]

詳細列表請參考神話列表,以下列出主要个神話

现代神话[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

  1. Dundes, Introduction, p. 1
  2. Kirk, "Defining", p. 57; Kirk, Myth, p. 74; Simpson, p. 3
  3. Lincoln, Bruce. -{zh;zh-hans;zh-hant|An Early Moment in the Discourse of "Terrorism": Reflections on a Tale from Marco Polo}-. Comparative Studies in Society and History. 2006, 48 (2): 242–259. "More precisely, mythic discourse deals in master categories that have multiple referents: levels of the cosmos, terrestrial geographies, plant and animal species, logical categories, and the like. Their plots serve to organize the relations among these categories and to justify a hierarchy among them, establishing the rightness (or at least the necessity) of a world in which heaven is above earth, the lion the king of beasts, the cooked more pleasing than the raw." 
  4. 胡适在《白话文学史》里说:“‘三百篇’里……嘸沒神话个遗迹。”

參考資料[编辑]

  • Armstrong, Karen. "A Short History of Myth". Knopf Canada, 2006.
  • Bascom, William. "The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives". 'Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 5-29.
  • Bulfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. Whitefish: Kessinger, 2004.
  • Campbell, Joeseph. "The Power of Myth". New York: Doubleday, 1988.
  • Doty, William. Myth: A Handbook. Westport: Greenwood, 2004.
  • Dundes, Alan. "Binary Opposition in Myth: The Propp/Levi-Strauss Debate in Retrospect". Western Folklore 56 (Winter, 1997): 39-50.
  • Dundes, Alan. Introduction. Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 1-3.
  • Dunes, Alan. "Madness in Method Plus a Plea for Projective Inversion in Myth". Myth and Method. Ed. Laurie Patton and Wendy Doniger. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.
  • Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
  • Eliade, Mircea. Myths, Dreams and Mysteries. Trans. Philip Mairet. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
  • "Euhemerism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Ed. John Bowker. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 20 March 2009 .
  • Fabiani, Paolo "The Philosophy of the Imagination in Vico and Malebranche". F.U.P. (Florence UP), English edition 2009. PDF
  • Frankfort, Henri, et al. The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Frazer, James. The Golden Bough. New York: Macmillan, 1922.
  • Graf, Fritz. Greek Mythology. Trans. Thomas Marier. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
  • Honko, Lauri. "The Problem of Defining Myth". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 41-52.
  • Kirk, G.S. Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures. Berkeley: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
  • Kirk, G.S. "On Defining Myths". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 53-61.
  • Leonard, Scott. "The History of Mythology: Part I". Scott A. Leonard's Home Page. August 2007.Youngstown State University, 17 November 2009
  • Littleton, Covington. The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological Assessment of the Theories of Georges Dumezil. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
  • Meletinsky, Elea. The Poetics of Myth. Trans. Guy Lanoue and Alexandre Sadetsky. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • "myth." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 21 March 2009
  • "myths". A Dictionary of English Folklore. Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 20 March 2009 Oxfordreference.com
  • Northup, Lesley. "Myth-Placed Priorities: Religion and the Study of Myth". Religious Studies Review 32.1(2006): 5-10.
  • O'Flaherty, Wendy. Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook. London: Penguin, 1975.
  • Pettazzoni, Raffaele. "The Truth of Myth". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 98-109.
  • Segal, Robert. Myth: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
  • Simpson, Michael. Introduction. Apollodorus. Gods and Heroes of the Greeks. Trans. Michael Simpson. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976. 1-9.
  • Singer, Irving. "Introduction: Philosophical Dimensions of Myth and Cinema." Cinematic Mythmaking: Philosophy in Film. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: MIT Press Books, 2008. 3-6. Web. 23 Oct. 2011.
  • Indick, William. "Classical Heroes in Modern Movies: Mythological Patterns of the Superhero." Journal of Media Psychology 9.3 (2004): 93-95. York University Libraries. Web.
  • Koven, Mikel J. "Folklore Studies and Popular Film and Television: a Necessary Critical Survey." Journal of American Folklore 116.460 (2003): 176-195. Print.
  • Olson, Eric L. "Great Expectations: the Role of Myth in 1980s Films with Child Heroes." Virginia Polytechnic Scholarly Library. Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University, 3 May 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172011-113805/unrestricted/OLSON_EL_T_2011.pdf>.
  • Matira, Lopamundra. "Children's Oral Literature and Modern Mass Media." Indian Folklore Research Journal 5.8 (2008): 55-57. Print.
  • Cormer, John. "Narrative." Critical Ideas in Television Studies. New York, United States: Charendon Press, 2007. 47-59. Print.

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