鎮海之戰

来自 吴语维基百科
蹦到: 导航搜寻
鎮海之戰
中法戰爭的一部分
Battle of Zhenhai victory monument.jpg
中法战争镇海之役胜利纪念碑
日期: 1885年3月1日1885年4月10日
地点: 浙江寧波鎮海
結果: 法軍撤離
起因:
領土變更: {{{territory}}}
參戰方
法國遠東艦隊 清軍
指揮官
法遠東艦隊司令孤拔 浙江提督歐陽利見
兵力
4艘以上戰艦 約9000人
傷亡
幾十人 幾十人

鎮海之戰,個事體發生于中法戰爭個末期,從光緒十一年正月十五日(1885年3月1日),持續一個多月到4月10日。個里向3月3日法國遠東艦隊勒拉孤拔個指揮下底進攻浙江鎮海,撥守备吴杰(字吉人,外号大佬)勒拉招寶山個威远炮臺親自发炮拷著孤拔個座艦「巴夏尔號」個艦首主桅,伊個横木阿跌落哉,格末據鎮海方面稱,剌拉艦桥高頭指揮個孤拔畀压成重伤,6月11號個辰光拉澎湖馬公個只地方死脫哉,有木老老說法,一說是勒搭澎湖得瘟疫染病而死,一說是因個次鎮海之戰受傷不治而死,個麼也有可能兩個原因都有作用。

背景[编辑]

招宝山炮台上的火炮

1885年2月,法軍攻臺灣不下,改為圍困臺灣(見條目「西仔反」)。孤拔率领法國遠東艦隊攻打福州,清廷派总兵吴安康

In early February 1885 part of Admiral Courbet's Far East Squadron left Keelung to head off a threatened attempt by part of the Chinese Nanyang Fleet (Southern Seas fleet) to break the French blockade of Formosa (Taiwan). On 11 February Courbet's task force met the cruisers Kaiji (開濟), Nanchen (南琛) and Nanrui (南瑞), three of the most modern ships in the Chinese fleet, near Shipu Bay, accompanied by the frigate Yuyuan (馭遠) and the composite sloop Dengching (登慶).

Suspecting that Kaiji, Nanchen and Nanrui had taken refuge in Zhenhai Bay, Courbet scouted the entrance to the bay at dawn on 1 March. Not only could he see the masts of the three Chinese cruisers, but he was also able to identify four other Chinese warships: the composite sloop Chaowu (超武), the wooden transport Yuankai (元凱), and two 'alphabetical' gunboats.  The entrance to the bay had been blocked by a barrage of sunken junks by the Chinese authorities, and was also defended by two recently-built forts.[1]             

經過[编辑]

招宝山炮台遗址

吴公纪功碑亭[编辑]

吴-{杰}-因為違反提督歐陽利見的軍令,開火重創「巴夏尔号」后,不仅未受嘉奖,反而被歐陽利見扣押要以軍法從事。劉秉璋和薛福成等力保後,方才免罪待職。

民国二十五年(1936年),鎮海人在纪念吴杰诞辰百周年時集资建造了「吴公纪功碑亭」,記錄了這一歷史事件。

公姓吳氏,諱-{杰}-,字吉人。先世為安徽歙縣人,至公考始遷浙之龍游。公生十三歲而孤,貧甚。里中富室姜某見而奇之,曰:「非常兒也」。出資為葬父,使食於其家。及龍游陷寇,姜氏闔門殲焉!公手刃負其少子,馳三日夜而後免。當是時,左文襄公方督師援浙,公占名兵籍中,從攻克龍游,轉戰浙閩間,累功擢守備,賞孔雀翎,加都司銜,署常山千總。文襄移督陝甘,以公從。中道聞母病,遽請急歸。光緒甲申,中法交惡,浙海戒嚴。巡撫築炮蛟門,檄公領之。提督大軍軍江口,日夜翼成,講議持重。會法艦來窺,公發炮中之,逸。越兩日,敵艦隊大至,攻台,公還擊,殪其渠。提督初聞公與敵戰,大駭。己聞公卻敵,則又大恚,慚智勇出公下,乃以違約束責公對簿。而巡撫上公功,授參將。然猶庶他事造蜚語中傷,公罷去。寧紹台兵備道薛公福成方入進覲,訟言公冤。巡撫擢川督,亦檄公自隨。甲午中日釁啟,浙江巡撫復奏調公領鎮海炮台。命下,浙人皆相慶,曰:「還我吳公矣!」公始著績由龍游,而孤軍據台創法艦,功尤偉。至是大府絕重公,嘗統全浙水師、嘉湖水陸各營鎮防各軍:凡權總兵官者三,攝提督者一,十余年未嘗離浙,始終兼領炮台,故駐鎮海之日尤久,呴濡士卒與為一體,而紀律整肅,寬不長奸,猛不侮孱,兵民洽和,盜賊屏息,漁舟商舶出入島嶼,擢歌揚帆弛其戒心,盡一縣中沐浴威惠。公亦敬禮其士夫,附循其子弟,至相為婚姻,恩誼膠固。年七十有四卒,即葬縣東南黃梅堰,其子孫遂著籍為鎮海人。越二十有六年,歲在丙子(1936年),縣之縉紳父老相與言曰:歲月逝矣,惟公有勞於茲邑,日以遼邈,不有記述,後將何稱!愛具書其事來請刻辭,將礱石而樹之五達之衢,俾居游者覽觀,以永公之功,乃序而銘之。銘曰:
長鯨揚鰭馗鯷波
黑雲蔽空山峨峨
俯瞰霆擊摧其牙
屹立屏嶂功孰多
大纛五丈森矛戈
十載坐鎮潛蛟鼉
嬗代耆氓仍謳歌
服休無斁非私阿
貞石可蝕銘不磨

  湘潭袁思亮撰,縣人俞佐廷書。

Admiral Anatole-Amédée-Prosper Courbet (1827-85)

1 March 1885[编辑]

文件:Battle of Zhenhai (2).jpg
French map of the battle of Zhenhai
文件:Nielly at Zhenhai.jpg
Nielly's guns in action at Zhenhai, 1 March 1885

March–June 1885[编辑]

The battle of Zhenhai (Chinese print)

These precautions turned out to be unnecessary. Far from making plans for an attack on the French squadron, the Chinese commanders appear to have been afraid that the French would send their torpedo boats into the Ningpo river to repeat their recent triumph in the Battle of Shipu. On the night of 2 March, as the French squadron lay at anchor, a searchlight suddenly began to sweep the Chinese barrage, several flares soared into the air, and the sound of cannon fire and rifle fire from within the bay disturbed the silence of the night. Nervous Chinese sentries had mistakenly identified a harmless fishing boat as a French torpedo boat and immediately given the alarm. The French listened in disbelief as the Chinese blazed away until dawn at an imaginary enemy.[2] The scene was repeated, on an almost nightly basis, for the rest of the month.

文件:Chinese Print of Battle of Zhenhai.jpg
Bayard, Triomphante and Nielly under fire from Chinese shore batteries at Zhenhai

The Chinese version crystallised shortly after the war, with the erection of a commemorative tablet near the site of the engagement in 1889 by the Chinese general Ouyang Lijian (歐陽利見), who had been charged with the defence of Ningbo and Zhenhai. According to Ouyang's account, the defence of the town was in the hands of the Chinese military mandarins Xue Fucheng (薛福成), Liu Bingzhang (劉秉璋) and himself. The hero of the battle was the artillery officer Wu Jie (吳杰), who directed the fire of a battery of cannon. Wu Jie defied direct orders not to fire on the French, and precipitated the battle by ordering his men to open fire. The Chinese cannon inflicted terrible damage on the French ships, hitting both Bayard and Nielly, and a shot aimed in person by Wu Jie severely wounded the ‘terrible Guba’ (as the Chinese called Courbet). After the battle was over, Wu Jie expected to be commended for his prowess. Instead, he was punished for disobedience.

Arlington's version[编辑]

文件:L. C. Arlington.jpg
The American naval officer L. C. Arlington, who served with the Nanyang Fleet during the Sino-French War

According to Arlington, the Chinese gunners were reluctant to fire on the French on 1 March, and the artillery duel was precipitated by a German gunner named Jerkins, who opened fire without orders on one of the French ships.

文件:Rieunier.jpg
Admiral Adrien-Barthélémy-Louis Rieunier (1833–1918)

French ships at Zhenhai[编辑]

Commemoration of the battle of Zhenhai in China[编辑]

Thanks to the care taken by Ouyang Lijian in 1889 to burnish his own reputation, the 'battle of Zhenhai' is still remembered with pride in China. Chinese fortifications and cannon used during the battle have been preserved at Zhenhai, and a monument has been erected that bears the inscription 中法战争镇海之役胜利纪念碑, 'Monument to the victory in the Zhenhai battle in the Sino-French War'.

Notes[编辑]

  1. Loir, 271–7
  2. Loir, 282–3

注釋[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

內部鏈接[编辑]

外部鏈接[编辑]

References[编辑]

  • Arlington, L. C., Through the Dragon's Eyes (London, 1931)
  • Duboc, E., Trente cinq mois de campagne en Chine, au Tonkin (Paris, 1899)
  • Garnot, L'expédition française de Formose, 1884–1885 (Paris, 1894)
  • Loir, Maurice, L'escadre de l'amiral Courbet (Paris, 1886)
  • Lung Chang [龍章], Yueh-nan yu Chung-fa chan-cheng [越南與中法戰爭, Vietnam and the Sino-French War] (Taipei, 1993)
  • Thomazi, La conquête de l’Indochine (Paris, 1934)