海地克里奥耳语

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海地克里奥耳语
Kreyòl ayisyen
使用国家 : 模板:HAI
使用人数: 一千四百萬 
Ranking: 62
语系: 克里奥耳语
 法基克里奥耳语
  安的列斯克里奥耳语‎
   海地克里奥耳语 
Official status
Official language of: 海地
Regulated by: no official regulation
言话代码
ISO 639-1: ht
ISO 639-2: hat
ISO/FDIS 639-3: hat 

海地克里奥耳语(kreyòl ayisyen,[kɣejɔl ajisjɛ̃])常庄简称克里奥耳语海地语,海地搭有得八百萬使用者,另外有得一百萬移居海外个海地侨民使用,包括巴哈马古巴加拿大开曼群岛多米尼加法属圭亚那瓜德罗普波多黎各伯利兹美国。箇種语言为仔是使用顶广泛个克里奥耳语而出名。 海地克里奥耳语是海地两種官方语言之一(另外種是法语)。渠是種基于18世纪法语个克里奥耳语,还受到眼非洲语言(包括阿拉伯语)搭西班牙语、Taíno语、英语个影响。

语音[编辑]

該文章包含國際音標符號。若無合適嗰字母與符號支持,相關字符可能顯示為問號、方塊或者其他符號,而非Unicode 字符

成对出现个辅音,左边个是清声,别样侪是浊声。

海地克里奥耳语辅音音位[1]
双唇音 唇齿音 齿音龈音 龈后音 软腭音 硬腭音
鼻音 m n ŋ模板:Footnote
爆音 p   b t   d k   ɡ
擦音  
塞擦音 f   v s   z ʃ   ʒ ɣ模板:Footnote
近音 l j w模板:Footnote
  1. /ŋ/ 只用拉英语借词里(eg: bèl filing "good feeling").
  2. The contrast between /ɣ/ and /w/ is lost before rounded vowels; the two phonemes merge as /w/ in that environment. Some orthographies of Haitian Creole follow the etymology of the word, using ‹r› for /w/ before a rounded vowel where this comes from an original /ɣ/, e.g. /ɡwo/ ('big', cf. French gros /ɡʁo/) is spelled ‹gro›. Other orthographies follow the modern pronunciation of the word and use ‹w› for /w/ in all cases, so that /ɡwo/ is spelled ‹gwo›.

海地克里奥耳语有得十隻元音:七隻口腔元音、三(或五)隻鼻化元音。

海地克里奥耳语元音音位[2]
i (ĩ) u (ũ)
半闭 e o
半开 ɛ   ɛ̃ ɔ   ɔ̃
a   ã

正字法高头,半开元音加隻钝音符搭半闭元音区别开来(譬方‹e›=/e/,而‹è›=/ɛ/)。‹n›跟牢‹a›、‹e›、‹o›表示鼻化。不过,元音字符加仔钝音符个说话,‹n›就勿表示鼻化,而表示鼻音(譬方‹on› = /ɔ̃/,而‹òn› = /ɔn/))。 The status of the nasal closed vowels in Haitian Creole has been disputed. Marcel D'Ans claims that these vowels cannot be phonemically nasal, while Robert A. Hall, Jr. and others argue that they are in fact phonemes.[3] The high nasal vowels are quite rare, appearing in a few words such as vodoun ("voodoo") and houngan ("voodoo priest"). In most words spelled with ‹in› or ‹oun›, such as moun ("person"), the final ‹n› is pronounced as a consonant.

词汇[编辑]

词汇多数源自法语,但是发音搭构词变化交关大。常庄担法语个定冠词变成功名词个一部分。譬方讲法语la lune (月亮)个定冠词la也併进克里奥耳语“月亮”隻名词里去——lalin

例词[编辑]

克里奥耳语 国际音标 辞源 吴语
annanna /ãnãna/ ananas "菠萝"
bagay /baɡaj/ bagage, "行李" "物事"
bannann /bãnãn/ banane, "香蕉" "大蕉"
bekàn /bekan/ bécane /bekan/ "脚踏车"
Bondye /bõdje/ Bon Dieu /bõdjø/ "天老爷!"
dèyè /dɛjɛ/ derrière /dɛʁjɛʁ/ "后头"
diri /diɣi/ du riz /dy ʁi/ "稻"、“饭”
fig /fiɡ/ figue /fiɡ/ "香蕉"
kiyèz, tchòk, poban /kijɛz, tʃɔk, pobã/   "hog banana" [nb 1]
kle /kle/ clé /kle/, "key" "扳头"、"钥匙"
kle kola /kle kola/ clé /kle/, "key" + 英"cola" "开瓶器"
konnfleks /kõnfleks/ 英"corn flakes" "breakfast cereal"
kawoutchou /kawutʃu/ caoutchouc, "橡胶" "轮胎"
lakay /lakaj/ (?) 法la cahutte /la kayt/ "the hut" "房子"
lalin /lalin/ la lune /la lyn/ "月亮"
makàk /makak/ macaque /makak/ "猢狲"
matàt /matãt/ ma tante, "阿拉阿姨" "阿姨"
moun /mun/ monde "人"
mwen /mwɛ̃/ moi /mwa/ or mien /mjɛ/ "我"
nimewò /nimewo/ numéro /nymeʁo/ "数字"
etazini /etazini/ États-Unis /etazyni/ "美国"
piman /pimã/ piment /pimã/ a very hot pepper
pann /pãn/ 法pendre /pãdʁ/, "to hang" "㫰衣裳绳子"
pwa /pwa/ pois /pwa/, "豌豆" "豆"
seyfin /seifiŋ/ 英surfing "冲浪"
senèt /ʃenɛt/ 法(Antilles) la quénette "mamoncillo", "chenette", "guinip", "gap" [nb 2]
totò /tõtõ/ tonton "爷叔"
vwazen /vwazɛ̃/ voisin /vwazɛ̃/ "邻舍"
ye /je/ yeux /jø/ ("oeil"複数) "眼睛"
zwazo /zwazo/ les oiseaux /wazo/ (连诵保留"z") "鸟"
  1. A banana that is short and fat, not a plantain and not a conventional banana; regionally called "hog banana" or "sugar banana" in English.
  2. The gap between a person's two front teeth.

语法[编辑]

2010年海地地震后个翻译[编辑]

2010年海地地震以后, 国际救援邪气需要海地克里奥耳语个翻译家生。有啥好用个家生参见“外站”箇节。

参考[编辑]

外链[编辑]

模板:Wikiversity