匈奴编年史

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编年[编辑]

年代 事体搭人物
about BC 250 头曼单于,匈奴第一代单于。当政时辖地东与东胡、南与秦、西与月氏为邻。秦始皇三十二年(前215),秦派蒙恬进取河南地,头曼率部属北徙,秦末边防松弛,头曼又悄悄南进。匈奴的兴起,是匈奴国家的创立者头曼统治的结果,《史记•匈奴传》载:“当是之时,东胡强而月氏盛,匈奴单于曰头曼。”
BC 209 冒顿单于是头曼单于长子,初被质于月氏。头曼爱其异母弟,曾阴谋借月氏之手杀之。冒顿得悉,盗取月氏善马逃回。他的英勇行动,使头曼受到感动,遂授之为“万骑长”。冒顿为洗雪前耻,刻苦练习骑射,严格训练士卒,于公元前209年杀死头曼,自立为单于。Die bulgarische Fürstenliste und die Sprache der Protobulgaren, Ural-Altaische Bibliothek, Otto Harrassowitz - Wiesbaden, 1955, founder of Xiongnu Empire. The Huns have possibly descended from Xiongnu.
BC174 冒顿单于病死,其子稽粥立,号老上单于。在位时曾攻打月氏,占据全部河西地区。此间匈奴军事上空前强大,西面击走月氏,平定了西域;南方屡破汉朝,使汉朝无计可施。
BC160 老上单于病逝,由他的儿子军臣单于即位。自汉朝策划“马邑之围”后,汉匈彻底决裂,匈奴常常侵入汉朝边境抢掠,次数多得无法计算,匈奴进入全盛时期。
BC126 军臣单于死,其弟左谷蠡王伊稚斜自立为单于,逼迫军臣单于太子于单,于单逃入汉境投降,汉封他为涉安侯,数月后去世。此时的匈奴已经今非昔比,而中原的汉朝也进入了最鼎盛的时期.汉武帝先后派遣卫青、李广、霍去病等在中国历史上显赫一时的将军对匈奴进行了疯狂的进攻。在王庭之战中,匈奴主力被卫青率领的汉朝大军几乎全部消灭,匈奴向北处逃走,迁至荒芜的漠北草原.经过后来其他汉朝几位将军的进攻下,原来属于匈奴的国土几乎全部沦为汉朝领地。喧赫一时的匈奴帝国时代结束了。经过这次失败,匈奴势力从此退出河套及其以西一带。史称“是后匈奴远遁,而幕(漠)南无王庭”。
BC114 伊稚斜单于死。其子乌维单于(前114—前105)即位。
BC105 孙乌师庐单于(前105—前102)即位。
BC102 呴犁湖单于即位。
BC101 且鞮侯单于即位。
BC96 狐鹿姑单于即位。
BC85 壶衍鞮单于即位。
BC68 虚闾权渠单于即位。
BC60 握衍朐提单于即位。
2th c. The region of South-Uralic steppe, around the River Don or the Syr Darya, first historical record by Ptolemy.
370 The Huns appeared in Europe. Under Balamber.
370s Balamber, ruler of Huns.
370 Huns crush the Alans, after crossed the Don, subjutaged them.[1]
370s Huns and Alans crush the Ostrogoths coalition of king Ermanaric, who commited suicide.[1][2]
380s? Hunnic campaign against Persia reached as far as Syria.[1]
400 Uldin, one of the primary chieftains of the Huns located beyond the Danube. He did not, however have total control of the Hunnic people.
405 Uldin led a body of Huns, together with his allies the Sciri, in the service of the western Magister Militum, Stilicho, against the invasion of Radagaisus.
408 Uldin's invasion of Moesia was repulsed, with thousands of his Germanic allies falling into Roman hands. Uldin was forced to retreat.
412 Uldin died. And the Huns divided into three large groups.
410–422 Charaton king of the Huns
42? Octar, a Hunnic ruler. His rule dates are unknown. He succeeded Charaton.
Mundzuk, Hunnic prince, father of Attila and Bleda.
432 Ruga, a warlord of the Huns, early victories over the Roman Empire. Under his command, the Huns invaded Roman territory and, after threatening the capitol, managed to take tribute from the Roman emperor of the time.
434 Bleda and Attila the Hun rule jointly
443 Attila's campaign strikes along the Danube,
the Huns overran the military centres of Ratiara and
successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš), then pushing along the Nisava River,
they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis.
They encountered and destroyed the Roman army outside Constantinople and stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital.
A second army was defeated near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli).
Theodosius, now without any armed forces to respond, admitting defeat, sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms.
445 Bleda died, after some intrigue he was killed by his brother Attila.
Attila became sole ruler.
447 Attila rode south into the empire through Moesia and defeated the Roman army in the Battle of the Utus.
451 Jun 20 Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in France,
"Battle of the Barbarians" between Attila's Huns and Aetius's Romans
453 Attila died in the early months of the year from nosebleed or
assasination by princess Gudrun.
453 Civil war among his sons: Ellac, Dengizich, Ernakh. Ellac wins and became king of Huns. Some Hun tribes migrated eastwards.
453 Ernakh founded the Proto-Bolgar Empire at the Volga river.
454 Battle of Nedao, the subjugated Germanic tribes rebelled against Ellac, lead by king Ardaric of Gepids. Ardrik won, and Ellak was killed.[2]
454 Dengizich became Hunnic ruler over the western tribes.
469 Dengezich was defeated and killed by Byzantine army, ending his Hunnic raids.
470s A part of Huns offered their military services to the East Roman Empire in return for land in which they could settle. The East Roman Emperor allowed them to settle in Thrace, where they were to serve as a buffer zone against the incursion of other tribes.
480? Mundo leader of a raiding group rules from Herta.
500s? Tribes of Utigurs and Kutrigurs, Sabirs, Ogurs, Saragurs, Onogurs, Bulgars living in Scythia, region north of Black Sea, mentioned as Hunnic people by the sources.
520s Gordas ruler over Huns, but they rebelled against him. The rebellion led by his brother Muageris was succesful, Gordas was killed.
528- Muageris, king of Huns in region of Azov Sea.
567 Avars came to Europe, after battles with Sabirs and others, they conquered a number of Hunnic remnant tribes.
632 Kubrat Khan of Utigurs defeated the Avars and reunited the Utigurs and Kutrigurs into an empire called Onoguria (Old Great Bulgaria). He was successed by his eldest son Batbayan.
650s Kotrag. A dissenting faction of Kutrigurs have traveled to the upper Volga where, along with part of the Utigurs, they founded the state of Volga Bulgaria with Kotrag as its ruler.
665 Batbayan, ruled from Poltava the lands north of the Black Sea and the Azov Sea.
668 Batbayan engaged in wars with his relative Cozrig and was temporarily driven into Crimea. Cozrig's Khazars attacked and eventually took the steppes between Don and the Urals, the war ended with a treaty between Batbayan and the Khazar Khagan Kaban.
668 Batbajan's Onogur state disintegrated under Khazar attack in 668, and his brothers parted ways, leading their people to seek a more secure home in other lands.
668 Asparuch went with one branch (20,000 to 30,000 Bulgars) to the lower Danube, to the territory of present day Bulgaria and conquered the Slavs living there and his people later assimilated.
668 Kuber. Under the leadership of him, an other part of the Kutrigur tribe moved to Sirmium (Pannonia) into the Avar Khaganate.
668 The fifth and smallest group, of Alcek, after many wanderings, ended up led by Emnetzur and settled mainly in Italy, near Naples in the Benevento and Salerno.
700s Civil war in the Avar Khaganate between the old Avars and the newcomer Bulgars. Avars won.
800 Charlemagne and his son leaded an army to against Huns (Avars), defeated them, so the Avar Khaganate ended.
892 Later some of the Onogur nomad tribes were united with blood covenant under the tribe of Magyar and with the lead of Arpad, described as a descendant of Attila, conquered the Carpathian Basin, "domains of King Attila", around the former Hunnic capital Buda, in the center territory of the old Avar Khaganate, united with the remained Avars and had became known as Hungarians. They were considered and described as Huns by the contemporary and later historical sources. ("Ungars, formerly Avars, the remnants of Huns"). They had established their country Hungary, what still presents in our days.

特殊页面[编辑]

Sources
Major: Priscus, Jordanes, Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius

Minor: Ptolemy, Socrates of Constantinople

外部链接[编辑]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Thompson, E.A. (1996), The Huns, The Peoples of Europe (Revised ed.), Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-21443-7
  2. 2.0 2.1 Marczali, Henrik: History of Hungary, 1894, Budapest, Hungary.
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